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With the imposition of WTO conditions in export and import of fresh fruits and vegetables, now it has become more relevant to produce disease free quality produce in order to comply strict phytosanitary conditions laid by certain countries. University of Florida, IFAS, Plant Pathology Department, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, EL, USA, 33850; email: [email protected] 22. Cornell University: New York State Agriculture Experiment Station, Department of Plant Pathology, Geneva, NY 14456 USA Phone: (315)787-2472 Fax:(315)787-2389 email: [email protected] Diseases and their Management William W. Lemon seedlings, when inoculated with a severe CTV seedling yellows tristeza isolate, will also show typical seedling yellows reaction and are also not affected by most CTV isolates found in California or the Mediterranean countries. Recent mo- lecular advancement in our knowledge to detect and diagnose the pathogens in com- modities even at very low level made it rather mandatory to produce exportable com- modities free from the pathogens. Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, 92521, Califomia. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional Station, Agricul tural College Estate, Shivajinagar, Pune 41 1005, Maharashtra, India Phone/Fax:7601 19. Department of Plant Pathology Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana - 141 004, India e-mail : [email protected] Turechek Cornell University: New York State Agriculture Experiment Station Department of Plant Pathology, Geneva, NY 14456 USA Abstract: In this chapter the world’s most important apple diseases are described and common approaches for managing them are reviewed. The reason the sour orange is preferred over lemon seedlings as indicators is due to the very low number of true to type seedlings produced (less than 7%) and the seedling yellows reaction in the sour orange is the same as that for lemon (Roistacher, 1991 - handbook). Naqvi National Research Centre for Citrus (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW e Book ISBN: 1-4020-2606-4 Print ISBN: 1-4020-1822-3 ©2004 Springer Science Business Media, Inc. Diagnosis and Management of Virus and Virus like Diseases of Citrus 109 C. In favourable environ- ment conditions, the pathogen attack may reduce the productivity significantly and may also become the cause of total crop failure. They concluded that though a number of SY-CTV isolates used provided good protection “a few immunized trees developed symptoms as severe as those of the healthy control trees”. Fungal Diseases of Fruit and Foliage of Citrus Trees 191 L. Thus, effective disease management plays a key role in successful quality production of fruits and vegetables. After a number of years Wallace and Drake (1976) reported that cross protection began to break down as new strains of the virus appeared. Preimmunization: Applications and Perspectivesin Virus Disease control 361 Gerd W. Looking at the load of the future food requirement, the global increased production of FV during last few years has absorbed the additional food requirement and accordingly the eating habits are also changing and shifting to- wards more consumption of these commodities worldwide. Predicting apple blossom infections by Erwinia amylovora using the MARYBLYT model. The only solution was to search for and find mild strains of CTV which might protect against the severe stem pitting strains. With an additional 1.5 billion mouth to feed by 2020, farmers worldwide have to produce 39 % more. Since the scions and even rootstocks may be severely pitted, changing to a new rootstocks has little or no effect, and this course of action could not be used to resolve this serious problem. The new millennium promises excitement and hope for the future by new ad- vancement in eco-friendly technologies in integrated disease management of fruits and vegetables. Plant Pathology has witnessed a dramatic advancement in management of fruits and vegetable diseases through in-depth investi- gations of host-pathogen interactions, development of molecular diagnostic tools, inte- gration of new concepts, principles and approaches. USA e-mail: [email protected] FAX: USA(909) 684 4324 Phone: USA (909) 684 0934 18. Skaria, Mani Texas A&M University, Kingsville Citras Center, 312 North International Blvd., Weslaco, TX 78596, USA Fax:956/ 969.0649 Phone:956/ 968.2132 e-mail:[email protected] The chapter does not provide a description of every disease that occurs on apple, a function that is better fulfilled by the APS Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases (Jones and Aldwinckle 1990). A survey of declining trees in the field orchards at the University of California at Riverside (UCR) revealed the presence of severe seedling yellows and stem pitting isolates of CTV.

The low productivity and short productive life of fruit plants has been vii mainly attributed to the unavailability of disease free planting stocks and among veg- etable crops, inadequate plant protection measures and quality seeds. Even if a protective isolate were found could it be recommended and would it be worth the risk Also, most cross protection studies in different countries for protection of sweet orange on sour orange 124 C. ROISTACHER decline have ultimately failed ( Stubbs, 1964; Wallace and Drake, 1974; Cohen, 1972; Thornton eta/., 1980; Van Vuureneta/., 1 99 l; Pelosi and Powell, 1992).

The book includes latest diagnostic tools and management strategies of almost all the economically important temperate, tropical and subtropical fruits and vegetables at one place which would be easier to refer by the students, research workers, planners, administrators, policy makers and other end users like grower of fruits and vegetables world-wide. University of Florida, UNIEMP Project, Institute Bioldgico, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL 13. I have attempted to include information on the geographic distribution of the disease, as well as providing a brief historical aspect for most diseases covered. 2.5.2 Cross protection against grapefruit stem pitting When severe isolates of CTV are present and especially when the brown citrus aphid (T.

The chapters on individual crop on various aspects of diseases like geographical distribution of disease, diagnosis, disease forecast, approaches to eliminate difficult sytemic pathogens, production of disease free planting material and integrated disease management at nursery, orchard and post-harvest level are contributed by leading Plant Pathologists having authority and significant contributions in respective fields at international level. Prakash, Om Department of Crop Protection, Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P. Prem Raj Department of Plant Pathology Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana - 141 004, INDIA 15. Everglades Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 3200 East Palm Beach Road, Belle Glade, EL 33430, USA. I have also attempted to include the most recent references and scientific work related to each disease. The first section is an introduction to apple production and pest management. citricida) is endemic, the grapefruit is difficult to grow without some means of cross protection.

Like Irish potato famine, the citrus tristeza virus has been highly destructive and this single pathogen could ravage citrus industry of many countries like Argentina, Brazil etc. Budwood certifica- tion programme developed to get rid of these viruses is very effective but still in coun- tries where it has not been adopted fully are facing the problem of low productivity and short productive life of Citrus plants. For the first six years results were very promising.

33 MT / ha of USA from 0.441 million ha during 2001-2002 ( FAOSTAT, 2002). Experimental trees were put in the field at the University of California at Riverside.

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